With the advancement of the times, steel structures, as the primary form of building structure, are increasingly used in construction. Steel structures are high-strength, lightweight, earthquake-resistant, uniform material, and durable, and they can effectively meet the design requirements of buildings.

steel structure information

Steel structure introduction:

Steel structures are one of the main types of buildings.

Steel structures mainly comprise steel beams, columns, trusses, and other components made of section steel and steel plates. Welds, bolts, or rivets connect various components or parts.

Steel structures are solid, lightweight, strong, deformable, rigid, and highly reliable. Using steel structures in construction projects can improve performance and save construction project costs. Replacing concrete structures with steel structures can reduce the use of sand, stone, and cement and minimize damage to non-renewable resources.

With the rapid development of the construction industry, steel structures stand out in the construction field because of their high strength, lightweight, and good plasticity. These characteristics of steel make long-span, high-rise, and heavy-duty buildings possible, while its modularity, prefabrication, and rapid construction characteristics improve construction efficiency. In addition, the steel structure is environmentally friendly, recyclable, and in line with sustainable development.

Select building structural system:

Selecting the appropriate structural system based on the building requirements and site conditions is essential. Steel structure building systems include portal steel frames, steel frames, and truss structures. Choosing a structural design depends on architectural requirements, site conditions, and budget.

Portal steel frames are suitable for large-span buildings, such as industrial plants, stadiums, etc. They usually have a rectangular structure of equal height and width, with excellent stability and load-bearing capacity.

Steel frame structures are suitable for small and medium-sized buildings, such as commercial buildings and residences. They usually comprise horizontal and vertical steel members that can form a mesh structure with good seismic resistance and load-bearing capacity.

Truss structures are suitable for building roofs or bridges. They typically consist of diagonal steel members that create triangular structures with excellent stability and load-bearing capacity.

In different steel structure buildings, what should the steel structure design focus on?

1. High-rise buildings:

In high-rise buildings, steel structures are usually used to support the building frame. The design of steel structures needs to consider factors such as the overall stability of the building, wind load and earthquake load. For example, the Shanghai Tower is a super high-rise building using steel structure. By optimizing the cross-section design, adopting advanced connection technology and using high-performance steel, the safety and economy of the structure are ensured.

2. Bridges:

In bridge design, steel structures are widely used in main beams, piers, towers and other parts. Steel structure design needs to consider factors such as the span, load, fatigue calculation and stability of the bridge. For example, the Golden Gate Bridge is a famous steel structure suspension bridge. The designer ensured the long-term safe operation of the bridge by accurately calculating the cross-sectional size, optimizing the node structure and adopting anti-corrosion measures.

3. Industrial plants:

In industrial plants, steel structures are often used to support the roof trusses, columns and beams of the factory. Steel structure design needs to consider factors such as the span, load, equipment layout, and fire protection of the factory building. For example, the factories of some large steel companies use steel structures. Designers ensure the safety and production efficiency of the factories by rationally arranging support columns and using fire-retardant coatings.

4. Sports venues:

In sports venues, steel structures are often used to support roofs, stands and facilities. The design of the steel structure needs to consider factors such as the number of spectators, equipment layout, safety and comfort. For example, the Bird’s Nest (Beijing National Stadium) is a sports venue that uses steel structure. Designers ensure the safety and beauty of the venue through innovative structural forms, optimized cross-sectional design and efficient construction methods.

Characteristics of steel structures

Earthquake resistant

Most low-rise villas’ roofs are sloped, so the roof structure uses a triangular roof truss system made of cold-formed steel components. After the light steel components are sealed with structural plates and gypsum boards, they form a powerful” “Plate-rib structural system.” this structural system has a more vital ability to resist earthquakes and horizontal loads and is suitable for areas with seismic intensity above 8 degrees.

Wind resistant

Steel structures are light in weight, high in strength, good in overall rigidity, and strong in deformation ability. The building’s self-weight is only one-fifth of that of a brick-concrete structure, and it can withstand hurricane-force winds of 70 meters per second, effectively protecting life and property.

Durable

The light steel residential structure comprises cold-formed, thin-walled steel component systems. The steel frames are made of super anti-corrosion high-strength cold-rolled galvanized sheets, which effectively avoids the impact of corrosion on steel sheets during construction and use and increases the service life of light steel components. The structural life can reach 100 years.

Insulation

The thermal insulation material used is mainly fiberglass wool, which has an excellent thermal insulation effect. Using thermal insulation boards on exterior walls can effectively avoid the “cold bridge” phenomenon in the wall and achieve better thermal insulation effects. The thermal resistance value of R15 insulation cotton about 100mm thick can be equivalent to that of a 1m brick wall.

Sound insulation

The sound insulation effect is an essential indicator for evaluating residences. The windows installed in the light steel system are all made of insulating glass, which has a good sound insulation effect, reaching more than 40 decibels. The sound insulation effect of the wall is composed of a light steel keel, and the insulation material of the gypsum board can be as high as 60 decibels.

Healthy

Dry construction reduces environmental pollution caused by waste. The house’s steel structure can be 100% recycled, and most of the other supporting materials can also be recycled, which aligns with current environmental awareness; all materials are green building materials, meet ecological environment requirements, and are beneficial to health.

Comfortable

The light steel wall adopts a high-efficiency energy-saving system, which has a breathing function and can adjust the dryness and humidity of indoor air; the roof has a ventilation function, which can form a flowing air space above the interior of the house to ensure the ventilation and heat dissipation needs inside the roof.

Environmental friendly

The materials are 100% recyclable, making it genuinely green and pollution-free.

Energy saving

All use high-efficiency and energy-saving walls, which provide good thermal, heat, and sound insulation and can reach 50% energy-saving standards.

The Fabrication of Steel Structure

Step 1: Cut

The first step in processing is cutting the steel plate. To make it into a specific size and shape, it is usually necessary to use a CNC cutting machine, such as a plasma cutting machine, a laser cutting machine, or a flame cutting machine. These machines utilize advanced CNC technology to efficiently and accurately cut material into desired shapes and sizes.

Step 2: Assembly and Welding

After the steel plates are cut into corresponding shapes, they must be assembled by automated equipment, followed by automatic welding. According to the requirements of processing drawings, automatic welding can weld steel plates into various shapes, such as H-type, box type, etc. However, some parts that cannot be welded automatically, such as connecting plates and stiffeners, must be manually welded. Welding is a critical part of the manufacturing process as it ensures the strength and durability of the structure. The welding process must be done with great care and precision to avoid flaws or weaknesses in the structure. Therefore, strict quality control and testing are required before welding to ensure that the welding quality meets the requirements.

Step 3: Surface Preparation

After the steel structure is welded, it must be surface treated. This step involves derusting and coating the steel to prevent corrosion and other forms of damage. Surface preparation methods can include different processes, such as shot blasting, painting, or galvanizing, depending on the requirements and characteristics of the project.

Step 4: Quality Check

Before leaving the factory, steel components must undergo strict quality inspection, including visual inspection and dimensional measurement, to ensure that they meet the design requirements. In addition, for some unique features, non-destructive testing is required to provide their structural strength meets the standard.

Quality inspection is vital to the steel component manufacturing process, ensuring the final product’s quality and performance. Only after a comprehensive inspection can the steel components be sent to the site for installation and use.

steel structure fabrication

The Steps for Steel Structure Installation:

Step 1: Preparations

Preparatory work must be carried out before steel structure installation. First of all, it is necessary to conduct a site survey to determine the location and precise size of the steel structure and, at the same time, formulate the installation plan and construction plan. In addition, you need to prepare the tools and equipment required for installation, including cranes, spreaders, welding machines, etc.

Step Two: Install the Base

The first step in installing steel structures is to install the foundation, including concrete column bases, anchor bolts, etc. The design and construction of the foundation must comply with relevant standards and requirements to ensure the stability and safety of the steel structure.

Step 3: Hoisting

The core step of steel structure installation is hoisting. Before hoisting, the position and angle must be confirmed, and necessary marks and adjustments must be made. Then, the steel structure is hoisted to the predetermined status with a crane and fixed with spreaders and cables.

Step Four: Connect

The next step in steel structure installation is connection. The connection is mainly made by welding or bolting. Before making connections, the alignment and straightness of the connection points must be ensured. After the link is completed, quality inspection and acceptance must be carried out to ensure the firmness and stability of the relationship.

Step 5: Paint

The last step in the installation of steel structures is painting. The primary purpose of the coating is to prevent corrosion and oxidation of steel structures and prolong their service life. Therefore, the layer needs to choose suitable coating and construction technology and ensure the uniformity and completeness of the coating.

In short, installing steel structures requires careful preparations and following specific steps. Furthermore, when installing steel structures, it must be carried out in strict accordance with relevant standards and requirements to ensure the quality and safety of the installation.

Steel structures vs traditional construction methods: which one is dominant?

In terms of building structures, there are mainly two methods: traditional building methods and steel structures. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and deciding which form to use is complicated.

The traditional method of construction, known as masonry, has been around for centuries. These methods involve using bricks, concrete blocks, or stones to build walls, floors, and roofs. These materials are layered using mortar to form a strong and durable structure. However, traditional construction methods have several disadvantages. For one thing, they are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Workers must lay each brick or block by hand, which can take a long time, especially for more substantial buildings. In addition, traditional construction methods are not as versatile as steel structures. Once complete, they cannot be easily changed or modified, which can be a problem for businesses or homeowners who want to expand or make changes in the future.

On the other hand, steel structures are a relatively new development in building construction. These structures are constructed using steel beams, columns, and plates bolted together to form a frame. Once the frame is complete, it is covered with cladding materials such as metal panels or glass. The result is a robust, versatile, and efficient structure.

One of the most notable advantages of steel structures is their speed of construction. They can be assembled quickly and efficiently, reducing labor costs and time. In addition, steel structures are lightweight, meaning they can be erected on any terrain. They’re also highly versatile, meaning they can be easily modified and expanded, making them ideal for businesses or homeowners who need to make changes in the future.

Another advantage of steel structures is their durability. Steel is strong and can withstand extreme weather conditions like hurricanes and earthquakes. They are also fire resistant, an essential safety feature in many buildings.

In terms of cost, steel structures can be more expensive than traditional construction methods. However, this can be offset by labor cost savings and speed of construction. In addition, steel structures last longer than conventional buildings and are a better long-term investment.