With the continuous progress of modern building technology, steel structure, as a basic form of building structure, is increasingly used in construction. The steel structure has high strength, is lightweight, earthquake resistant, fire prevention, durability, etc., and can effectively meet architectural design requirements. Steel structure information contains detailed descriptions of design, fabrication, and erection.
What is a Steel Structure?
The steel structure is a building system that uses steel as the primary material assembled by welding and bolting. It is usually composed of steel columns, steel beams, steel plates, connectors, etc. It can be used in various types of buildings, such as commercial buildings, industrial buildings, bridges, towers, etc. The steel structure has the advantages of high strength, high rigidity, good durability, lightweight, and fast construction speed. In addition, it has a longer service life than traditional buildings, can withstand various weather conditions and natural disasters, and can be easily expanded and remodeled. Therefore, the steel structure has become a commonly used building structure in modern architecture.
Steel structure information: How to design a steel structure
Designing a steel structure can be a complex process that requires careful planning and study of details. Still, it is also necessary to create a durable and efficient building. As a result, steel structures have become a popular choice for many different types of construction, such as industrial facilities, commercial buildings, and residences. When designing steel structures, there are a few key considerations to keep in mind:
1. Building requirements:
To begin the design process for a steel structure, it is crucial first to identify the building’s specific requirements. This involves carefully evaluating the building’s purpose, size, location, and unique characteristics or needs. The function of the building plays a critical role in determining the structural loading and configuration required. Additionally, the building’s size and location are key factors that must be considered during the design and construction process to ensure the structure is safe and efficient. By taking all of these essential factors into account, the resulting steel structure will be optimally designed to meet the needs and requirements of the intended application.
2. Calculate building loads
The structure must support the expected loads when designing steel structures. These loads include the structure’s weight and any persons, equipment, or material on or off the system. These loads usually have the following:
The wind speed and direction in the area where the building is located will affect the magnitude and direction of the wind load, so these factors must be considered in the design.
The amount of snowfall and snow accumulation in the area where the building is located will also affect the magnitude and distribution of the snow load. Therefore, these factors must be considered during design to ensure the structure can withstand the expected loads.
Equipment, materials, and personnel on the roof of a building will generate additional loads.
Equipment, materials, and people inside the building will also generate additional loads.
Foundation Bearing Capacity
The bearing capacity of the foundation on which the structure sits is also an important consideration. Therefore, the foundation’s type, stability, and bearing capacity must be considered in the design.
3. Choose a structural system
Choosing a suitable structural system according to the building requirements and site conditions is very important. The steel structure building system includes a portal steel frame, steel frame, and truss structure. Choosing the structural design depends on building requirements, site conditions, and budget.
Portal steel frames are suitable for long-span buildings, such as industrial plants and gymnasiums. They usually have a rectangular structure of equal height and width, offering excellent stability and load-bearing capacity.
Steel frame structure suits small and medium-sized buildings, such as commercial buildings and residences. They usually comprise horizontal and vertical steel members that can form a grid-like structure with good seismic performance and load-bearing capacity.
Truss structures are suitable for building roofs or bridges. They are usually composed of diagonal steel members that can form a triangular structure with excellent stability and load-bearing capacity.
4. Building Codes and Regulations
Local building codes and regulations must be complied with to ensure the safety and structural soundness of steel structures. Observance of these codes and regulations can ensure the reliability and security of steel structures and the legality and normativeness of design and construction.
American standard steel structure codes include “ANSI/AISC 360-16 Steel Structure Code”, European standard steel structure codes include “BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 European Standard Steel Structure Design Code”, national standard steel structure codes include “Steel Structure Design Specifications” (GB 50017-2017). These specifications include the specifications and requirements of steel structure design, material selection, component design, construction, and other aspects.
5. Material selection
Depending on the type of steel used, its strength, durability, and other properties can vary. Q355B steel is used for the primary load-bearing structure, which has high strength and toughness. On the other hand, the secondary structure is made of Q235B steel, which has low power and is suitable for designing auxiliary structures. Therefore, it is essential to choose the appropriate steel type in structural design, which will directly affect the performance and life of the structure.
The Fabrication of Steel Structure
Step 1: Cut
The first step in processing is cutting the steel plate. To make it into a specific size and shape, it is usually necessary to use a CNC cutting machine, such as a plasma cutting machine, a laser cutting machine, or a flame cutting machine. These machines utilize advanced CNC technology to efficiently and accurately cut material into desired shapes and sizes.
Step 2: Assembly and Welding
After the steel plates are cut into corresponding shapes, they must be assembled by automated equipment, followed by automatic welding. According to the requirements of processing drawings, automatic welding can weld steel plates into various shapes, such as H-type, box type, etc. However, some parts that cannot be welded automatically, such as connecting plates and stiffeners, must be manually welded. Welding is a critical part of the manufacturing process as it ensures the strength and durability of the structure. The welding process must be done with great care and precision to avoid flaws or weaknesses in the structure. Therefore, strict quality control and testing are required before welding to ensure that the welding quality meets the requirements.
Step 3: Surface Preparation
After the steel structure is welded, it must be surface treated. This step involves derusting and coating the steel to prevent corrosion and other forms of damage. Surface preparation methods can include different processes, such as shot blasting, painting, or galvanizing, depending on the requirements and characteristics of the project.
Step 4: Quality Check
Before leaving the factory, steel components must undergo strict quality inspection, including visual inspection and dimensional measurement, to ensure that they meet the design requirements. In addition, for some unique features, non-destructive testing is required to provide their structural strength meets the standard.
Quality inspection is vital to the steel component manufacturing process, ensuring the final product’s quality and performance. Only after a comprehensive inspection can the steel components be sent to the site for installation and use.
The Steps for Steel Structure Installation:
Step 1: Preparations
Preparatory work must be carried out before steel structure installation. First of all, it is necessary to conduct a site survey to determine the location and precise size of the steel structure and, at the same time, formulate the installation plan and construction plan. In addition, you need to prepare the tools and equipment required for installation, including cranes, spreaders, welding machines, etc.
Step Two: Install the Base
The first step in installing steel structures is to install the foundation, including concrete column bases, anchor bolts, etc. The design and construction of the foundation must comply with relevant standards and requirements to ensure the stability and safety of the steel structure.
Step 3: Hoisting
The core step of steel structure installation is hoisting. Before hoisting, the position and angle must be confirmed, and necessary marks and adjustments must be made. Then, the steel structure is hoisted to the predetermined status with a crane and fixed with spreaders and cables.
Step Four: Connect
The next step in steel structure installation is connection. The connection is mainly made by welding or bolting. Before making connections, the alignment and straightness of the connection points must be ensured. After the link is completed, quality inspection and acceptance must be carried out to ensure the firmness and stability of the relationship.
Step 5: Paint
The last step in the installation of steel structures is painting. The primary purpose of the coating is to prevent corrosion and oxidation of steel structures and prolong their service life. Therefore, the layer needs to choose suitable coating and construction technology and ensure the uniformity and completeness of the coating.
In short, installing steel structures requires careful preparations and following specific steps. Furthermore, when installing steel structures, it must be carried out in strict accordance with relevant standards and requirements to ensure the quality and safety of the installation.
Steel structures vs traditional construction methods: which one is dominant?
In terms of building structures, there are mainly two methods: traditional building methods and steel structures. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and deciding which form to use is complicated.
The traditional method of construction, known as masonry, has been around for centuries. These methods involve using bricks, concrete blocks, or stones to build walls, floors, and roofs. These materials are layered using mortar to form a strong and durable structure. However, traditional construction methods have several disadvantages. For one thing, they are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Workers must lay each brick or block by hand, which can take a long time, especially for more substantial buildings. In addition, traditional construction methods are not as versatile as steel structures. Once complete, they cannot be easily changed or modified, which can be a problem for businesses or homeowners who want to expand or make changes in the future.
On the other hand, steel structures are a relatively new development in building construction. These structures are constructed using steel beams, columns, and plates bolted together to form a frame. Once the frame is complete, it is covered with cladding materials such as metal panels or glass. The result is a robust, versatile, and efficient structure.
One of the most notable advantages of steel structures is their speed of construction. They can be assembled quickly and efficiently, reducing labor costs and time. In addition, steel structures are lightweight, meaning they can be erected on any terrain. They’re also highly versatile, meaning they can be easily modified and expanded, making them ideal for businesses or homeowners who need to make changes in the future.
Another advantage of steel structures is their durability. Steel is strong and can withstand extreme weather conditions like hurricanes and earthquakes. They are also fire resistant, an essential safety feature in many buildings.
In terms of cost, steel structures can be more expensive than traditional construction methods. However, this can be offset by labor cost savings and speed of construction. In addition, steel structures last longer than conventional buildings and are a better long-term investment.